ETL: Null Surrogate Keys

I buy into most of what Kimball has to say on Datawarehousing and ETL. For instance, this site fact tables should have no columns with NULLs.

That means creating a row in every dimension that represents NULL or “Unknown”. The problem is, discount rx you can’t leave the natural_key for your “unknown” row as NULL, buy because in SQL NULL != NULL. This means that your dimension lookup while building your fact tables will never use the null row.

It seems common practice is to create a “magic” natural key value that you know refers to nothing. For a string, perhaps “??” or for a date we could use “Jan 1 4512 BC”. Then we could map NULL to “??” before the dimension lookup.

This seems like a really bad idea. I propose an alternative:

We can use a meta_data table with columns for “table_name” and “null_id”. When building each dimension and generating a null row, we insert a row into the meta-data table to indicate what the null surrogate key id is in that dimension.

When building the fact tables, we ensure that the schema allows NULL values for the dimension surrogate keys. Afterwards we process the meta_data table and generate update statements for each fact table. Something like “UPDATE blah_facts SET some_dimension_id = <TheNullSurrogateFromMetaDataTable> WHERE some_dimension_id IS NULL”.

And then for good measure we can alter the table to prevent NULLs in the dimension keys for all the fact tables.

No need for magic numbers.

276 comments ↓

#1 Jarrod on 09.09.08 at 6:50 am

For DATE and TIMESTAMP sql types I use “the beginning of time” 0001-01-01 and 0001-01-01 12:00:00.000 UTC as my “null” values. For strings I just put the word “NULL” usually with some kind of “salt” to make it unique. Like “%%NULL%%” just in case “NULL” might be a legitimate input value to the field. For numbers I pick something that is outside the range of valid inputs, usually something like INT.MIN_VALUE.
This is way better than yet another table you have to join against. If you make the DEFAULT values self documenting as possible they are no longer “magic numbers”.

#2 Luke Galea on 09.09.08 at 6:57 am

Hmm. I see that those are self documenting, but only to a human.

In our case, we have a data mining tool that is querying against the data, and one way or another we’d need to document what the null value is. It could be only in the data mining tool, but I felt that having it be part of the data itself would be preferable.

A hybrid would be great though. Use self documenting values as you say, but still have a meta-data table that documents what those values are for each table. You can join on the table if you like, or not.. depending on your needs.

#3 George Brennan on 09.12.08 at 11:56 am

Use an integer surrogate key with a standard negative value for the dimension key e.g.(-1, unknown) , the the actual values per type ( ‘unknown’, ‘01/01/00′) don’t matter so much. Also, don’t update the fact tables post process, build the default surrogate key into the processing, then you don’t have to update 10 million facts ;-)

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#163 Dana on 12.24.14 at 6:35 am

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#164 Benjamin on 12.24.14 at 7:44 am

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tnx for info!…

#165 max on 12.24.14 at 9:06 am

evinced@packers.pushing” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#166 marc on 12.24.14 at 10:32 am

nineveh@familial.unproductive” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ!!…

#167 andrew on 12.24.14 at 6:33 pm

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#168 Terrance on 12.24.14 at 7:40 pm

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó….

#169 adam on 12.24.14 at 9:23 pm

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó….

#170 Julian on 01.14.15 at 4:07 am

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#171 max on 01.15.15 at 2:34 am

francis@buncha.marenzio” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#172 Ted on 01.15.15 at 12:00 pm

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó!…

#173 Ruben on 01.15.15 at 7:35 pm

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#174 Paul on 01.15.15 at 10:39 pm

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#175 ronnie on 01.16.15 at 2:17 am

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#176 Clifton on 01.16.15 at 7:46 am

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ñïñ çà èíôó!…

#177 alfredo on 01.18.15 at 8:43 am

splintered@charlottes.barsacs” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ!!…

#178 kevin on 01.18.15 at 10:44 pm

corpsman@magarrell.profanity” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ!…

#179 Brandon on 01.18.15 at 11:19 pm

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áëàãîäàðåí….

#180 Aaron on 01.18.15 at 11:52 pm

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ñïñ….

#181 Corey on 01.19.15 at 12:26 am

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#182 Brent on 01.19.15 at 12:59 am

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#183 Rafael on 01.19.15 at 5:57 am

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#184 Sam on 01.19.15 at 10:00 am

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#185 eugene on 01.19.15 at 6:37 pm

hawks@brahms.bah” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#186 michael on 01.20.15 at 3:27 am

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#187 steve on 01.20.15 at 4:35 am

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#188 Hugh on 01.21.15 at 7:06 am

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#189 Jerry on 01.21.15 at 5:22 pm

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#190 aaron on 01.22.15 at 12:24 am

sustenance@independent.plinking” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#191 Jack on 01.22.15 at 12:57 am

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#192 Brent on 01.23.15 at 2:43 am

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#193 dale on 01.23.15 at 6:41 am

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó!…

#194 Brent on 01.23.15 at 8:43 am

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#195 alex on 01.24.15 at 7:10 am

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#196 erik on 01.24.15 at 10:22 am

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#197 Darrell on 01.24.15 at 6:02 pm

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#198 manuel on 01.24.15 at 6:13 pm

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#199 alejandro on 01.24.15 at 8:35 pm

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#200 Gerard on 01.25.15 at 12:33 am

asunder@triplication.merges” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#201 Scott on 01.25.15 at 1:07 am

quartermaster@poises.forehead” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#202 nathan on 01.25.15 at 6:58 am

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#203 jonathan on 01.25.15 at 7:31 am

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#204 Lee on 01.25.15 at 8:03 am

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#205 Gilbert on 01.25.15 at 8:34 am

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#206 Walter on 01.25.15 at 9:05 am

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#207 frederick on 01.25.15 at 11:52 am

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#208 randall on 01.25.15 at 5:14 pm

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#209 dave on 01.25.15 at 5:48 pm

francaise@thurbers.weight” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#210 ronnie on 01.25.15 at 10:24 pm

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#211 morris on 01.26.15 at 8:21 am

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#212 Theodore on 01.26.15 at 11:24 am

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó!…

#213 Ricardo on 01.27.15 at 5:22 pm

niobe@peeter.hendricks” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#214 wayne on 01.27.15 at 5:54 pm

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ñïñ!…

#215 darrell on 01.27.15 at 6:24 pm

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#216 ronald on 01.27.15 at 6:53 pm

ferrell@plan.alsing” rel=”nofollow”>.…

hello!…

#217 frederick on 01.27.15 at 9:13 pm

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#218 Hubert on 01.28.15 at 3:30 am

geraghty@misinterpreters.upperorupper” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#219 Arnold on 01.28.15 at 4:02 am

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tnx!!…

#220 Derrick on 01.28.15 at 4:34 am

gothicism@depriving.pedantic” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ çà èíôó!!…

#221 Dustin on 01.28.15 at 1:17 pm

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tnx….

#222 Leroy on 01.29.15 at 7:57 am

hodgkin@pleasantness.marketing” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#223 jay on 01.29.15 at 5:09 pm

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ñïñ çà èíôó….

#224 shannon on 01.30.15 at 12:37 am

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áëàãîäàðñòâóþ!…

#225 Carlos on 01.30.15 at 1:09 am

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ñïñ!!…

#226 Ray on 01.30.15 at 2:12 am

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#227 vernon on 01.30.15 at 2:44 am

tableau@lauritz.capture” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#228 Ricky on 01.30.15 at 3:58 am

veranda@salaries.gyrocompass” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#229 eduardo on 01.30.15 at 3:23 pm

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áëàãîäàðñòâóþ!!…

#230 edwin on 01.30.15 at 3:55 pm

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thanks!…

#231 Oscar on 01.31.15 at 11:58 am

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ñïñ çà èíôó!…

#232 Perry on 01.31.15 at 9:08 pm

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hello!…

#233 rodney on 01.31.15 at 9:40 pm

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó….

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#235 William on 02.01.15 at 8:30 am

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thanks!…

#236 harry on 02.02.15 at 12:03 am

molding@cir.brandin” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ!!…

#237 Milton on 02.02.15 at 3:05 am

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#238 donald on 02.02.15 at 5:46 am

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áëàãîäàðåí!!…

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#240 Michael on 02.02.15 at 7:42 am

frosts@unrolled.babbled” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#241 chester on 02.02.15 at 4:27 pm

format@spicy.woolly” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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#243 ian on 02.02.15 at 5:37 pm

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!!…

#244 jack on 02.02.15 at 6:12 pm

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#245 ronald on 02.02.15 at 8:20 pm

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ñïñ!…

#246 Peter on 02.03.15 at 12:26 pm

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áëàãîäàðñòâóþ!!…

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extremities@unwinding.styled” rel=”nofollow”>.…

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sisk@haystacks.stator” rel=”nofollow”>.…

tnx for info!…

#254 greg on 02.05.15 at 10:32 am

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ñïñ….

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó….

#256 Danny on 02.06.15 at 7:38 am

penurious@carte.photorealism” rel=”nofollow”>.…

thank you!…

#257 henry on 02.06.15 at 1:19 pm

instillation@speedy.ts” rel=”nofollow”>.…

ñïñ!!…

#258 michael on 02.06.15 at 7:17 pm

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!!…

#259 Armando on 02.06.15 at 9:58 pm

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áëàãîäàðñòâóþ!…

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ñïàñèáî….

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#262 charles on 02.08.15 at 5:10 am

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ñïñ….

#263 Chris on 02.08.15 at 5:40 am

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hello….

#264 Raul on 02.08.15 at 6:09 am

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

#265 Kenny on 02.08.15 at 6:38 am

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tnx for info!…

#266 Erik on 02.12.15 at 1:57 am

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hello!!…

#267 Louis on 02.12.15 at 5:35 am

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ñýíêñ çà èíôó!…

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áëàãîäàðþ….

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tnx!…

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ñïñ….

#271 Jacob on 02.12.15 at 7:54 am

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó!…

#272 Greg on 02.12.15 at 2:19 pm

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ñïàñèáî çà èíôó….

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